white timberland boots for men How do 3D printers work

buy timberland boots uk How do 3D printers work

They’re remarkable because they can produce different kinds of objects, in different materials, all from the same machine.

A 3D printer can make pretty much anything from ceramic cups to plastic toys, metal machine parts, stoneware vases, fancy chocolate cakes or even (one day soon) human body parts.

They replace traditional factory production lines with a single machine, just like home inkjet printers replaced bottles of ink, a printing press, hot metal type and a drying rack.

Why is it called printing?

If you look closely (with a microscope) at a page of text from your home printer, you’ll see the letters don’t just stain the paper, they’re actually sitting slightly on top of the surface of the page.

In theory, if you printed over that same page a few thousand times, eventually the ink would build up enough layers on top of each other to create a solid 3D model of each letter. That idea of building a physical form out of tiny layers is how the first 3D printers worked.

How do 3D printers work?

You start by designing a 3D object on an ordinary home PC, connect it to a 3D printer, press ‘print’ and then sit back and watch. The process is a bit like making a loaf of sliced bread, but in reverse. Imagine baking each individual slice of bread and then gluing them together into a whole loaf (as opposed to making a whole loaf and then slicing it, like a baker does). That’s basically what a 3D printer does.

The 3D printing process turns a whole object into thousands of tiny little slices, then makes it from the bottom up, slice by slice. Those tiny layers stick together to form a solid object. Each layer can be very complex, meaning 3D printers can create moving parts like hinges and wheels as part of the same object. You could print a whole bike handlebars, saddle, frame, wheels, brakes, pedals and chain ready assembled,
white timberland boots for men How do 3D printers work
without using any tools. It’s just a question of leaving gaps in the right places.

What are the opportunities?

Have you ever broken something, only to find it’s no longer sold and you can’t replace it? 3D printing means you can simply print a new one. That world, where you can make almost anything at home, is very different from the one we live in today. It’s a world that doesn’t need lorries to deliver goods or warehouses to store them in, where nothing is ever out of stock and where there is less waste, packaging and pollution.

It’s also a world where everyday items are made to measure, to your requirements. That means furniture made to fit your home, shoes made to fit your feet, door handles made to fit your hand, meals printed to your tastes at the touch of a button. Even medicines, bones, organs and skin made to treat your injuries.

You can get some of those things now if you’re wealthy, but 3D printing brings affordable, bespoke manufacturing to the masses. If that sounds like pure fantasy, try googling “personalised 3D printed products” and see for yourself. After all, the notion of doing your supermarket shopping on an iPad was like something out of Star Trek 20 years ago.

What are the limitations?

Although buying a 3D printer is much cheaper than setting up a factory, the cost per item you produce is higher, so the economics of 3D printing don’t stack up against traditional mass production yet. It also can’t match the smooth finish of industrial machines, nor offer the variety of materials or range of sizes available through industrial processes. But, like so many household technologies, the prices will come down and 3D printer capabilities will improve over time.

Is it the next big thing?

Yes, if you’re a product designer or engineer, but for most people, no.

On Adblock click “Don’t run on pages on this domain”.

If you are Private Browsing in Firefox, “Tracking Protection” may cause the adblock notice to show. It can be temporarily disabled by clicking the “shield” icon in the address bar.
white timberland boots for men How do 3D printers work

timberland style boots How did Vans become a global shoe brand

timberland boots size 8 How did Vans become a global shoe brand

Steve Van Doren admits that he owes his company’s success, in part, to a lucky break. Twenty five years ago, some bored high school kid started drawing lines on his canvas, rubber soled shoes and colouring in the squares. One of Van Doren’s employees saw the design and suggested the company run up similar fabric. Then came the lucky part: a production company was looking for shoes for Fast Times at Ridgemont High, a teen movie starring an up and coming young actor called Sean Penn. “And suddenly it was a phenomenon,” says Van Doren. “We made them in every colour and every combination we could think of.”

The style became known as the Checkerboard. And it’s a phenomenon again: adopted by rock stars (Iron Maiden, the Foo Fighters and more recently, the Ting Tings), art student alternatives and middle youth creatives, the slip on sneaker born out of Californian skate culture is selling out everywhere. Not bad for a model that could have been worn at almost any time over the last four decades.

The company behind the sneaker is a little over 40 years old. Van Doren is the son of Paul Van Doren, founder of Vans, a brand that is arguably the progenitor of sneaker culture the obsessive, nerdy knowledge of training shoes and one undergoing something of a renaissance; its sales have doubled over the last three years.

“I remember painting and helping to open up the first store, passing out flyers door to door, making shoes all through summer vacation and getting paid with 50 one dollar bills, which then felt like more money than god,” says Steve Van Doren, the brand’s self titled Ambassador of Fun, whose daughter has also worked for the company since school age. “My dad knew I wanted to have my wallet feel thick.”

That first brush with Hollywood was not lost on Van Doren. When he heard that Samuel L Jackson was a fan and was making some movie about so the grapevine said snakes on a plane, he had Vans’ art department custom make a themed pair and send them to the film studio. “And the next thing you know, on David Letterman, on Jay Leno, on the front pages, Jackson is wearing them everywhere,” says Van Doren. Hearing that Julia Roberts was in town filming, he learnt that her first job was in a shoe shop, so sent her a pair, along with roses and chocolates. She wore them in her next two movies.

What began as a mom and pop operation Paul Van Doren worked for a shoe firm for 20 years before launching his own brand, which he sold to just 50 local stores has become a $870m (435m) company. But Steve Van Doren stresses that its MO has not changed since it was founded in 1966, and soon became the shoe of choice for skateboard pioneers. Granted, there was the time it tried to become the shoe of choice for wrestlers, skydivers and break dancers, and almost went bankrupt. “So now we stick with just being a cool, native southern Californian youth culture brand. California is the home of action sports and if we were as big around the globe as we are there, we’d be the biggest shoe brand in the world,” says Van Doren, wearing a Hawaiian shirt, denims and, of course, the family firm’s product.

Vans’ current glory moment is the product of both its broad reach and fashion turning in its favour. Its classic styles are in keeping with a move away from the all whistles and bells hi tech trainer in favour of a stripped down pump, creating a market that Vans dominates with the likes of Converse, and leaving the sports goods giants scrambling to produce their own versions.

“Retro comes back, and business is phenomenal. It’s all what we used to do years ago basic footwear with vulcanised rubber soles, an easy price for an easy look that anyone can wear, that you can chuck in the washer,
timberland style boots How did Vans become a global shoe brand
” says Van Doren. “Economics has a lot to do with it, too: how many pairs of $150 trainers can you afford, what with the price of food and gas going up? But more than that, there is a desire to go back to basics, not to have a special tread there and an air pocket here. Sometimes, fashion just goes back to black and white, to that simplicity. Next up is neon you wait, I’ve been telling everyone.”

Skateboarding fashion has entered the mainstream: the combat trouser, hoodie and wallet chain, the beanie and trucker cap, the outsize T shirt and super baggy jeans are street trends in their own right, each finding its origin in a skate park somewhere, each invariably accompanied by a pair of Vans. Yet it is not the turn of fashion’s screw alone that has made Vans a pop cultural phenomenon, as much as its close links with its core audience of 12 to 18 year olds and the skate and action sports world that defines the way they dress.

They may lack the guaranteed weather of the Sunshine State, but visit NASS (the skate/BMX music festival), Waterstock (the wakeboarding music festival) or Boardmasters (the surf/skate music festival) across the UK this summer and there Vans will be, as sponsors and on the feet of punters and professionals alike. These are the people to whom the likes of Tony Alva and Stacy Peralta, ground breaking skateboarders who adopted the Era, skateboarding’s first shoe back in 1976, and Steve Caballero, for whom Vans designed the first signature skate shoe, are nothing less than gods.

“It’s really the trend setting kids that tell us what we have to be, when they go to school and watch what each other is wearing,” says Van Doren. “Some brands are just associated with certain lifestyles. We’re more West Coast than East Coast, which has tended to be strong for Converse. We’re more solo sports than we are team sports, which the big athletics brands like Nike tap in to. We’re more rock and punk than we are hip hop, which other brands, again, tap in to. But what we certainly are is skateboarding.”

This bodes well not just because skateboarding has become an Olympic sport or because next year, the 50th anniversary of the Roller Derby Skateboard, the first mass market skateboard, is bound to renew interest in the sport. But because skate style, increasingly ageless and easy to wear, is so pervasive. As Van Doren puts it, when your product becomes part of the furniture for an audience to whom provenance, grip, cushioning and good looks are important, “it all becomes more than a question of fashion”.

“After all, a lot of the styles we make have been around for a long time now and they’re still here and still selling. At the end of the day, it’s just a good shoe that’s an ethos that goes back to my dad’s emphasis on product quality. In fact, I’d say the unique thing about Vans is that if I was kid in the Seventies and might now have children and my children have children, then all three generations may be wearing Vans the old fart like me, my daughter and, when she has them, her kids. It’s a brand that crosses generations people grow up wearing them and keep with them.”

Click the Adblock/Adblock Plus icon, which is to the right of your address bar.

On Adblock click “Don’t run on pages on this domain”.

If you are Private Browsing in Firefox, “Tracking Protection” may cause the adblock notice to show. It can be temporarily disabled by clicking the “shield” icon in the address bar.
timberland style boots How did Vans become a global shoe brand

timberland earthkeeper chelsea boots How did the Thomas Fire start

timberland mens shoes uk How did the Thomas Fire start

It’s unclear when investigators will be able to say what caused the Thomas Fire because these inquiries can take time.Capt. Stan Ziegler, a spokesman for the Ventura County Fire Department, said Wednesday that firefighters initially responded to an area north of Steckel Park in Santa Paula, but it was not known whether that was the “area of origin” for the fire.Ziegler said he has been working the fast moving, wind whipped blaze since it ignited Monday evening. Since then, it has ballooned from its initial 50 acreestimate to at least 65,000 acres. The fire has displaced thousands of residents, destroyed at least 150 structures and temporarily closed schools and businesses throughout the region.Ziegler said investigators go to a fire’s area of origin when trying to determine its cause.”There’s a very wide consideration of what the conditions present when our investigators get on scene,” Ziegler said.Once investigators identify the area of origin, they may have a better idea of how the blaze started and its exact “point of origin.” In some cases, that has been as simple as a utility pole burning in grass, but in other instances, it’s not as obvious, Ziegler said.Ziegler said that when responding to fires, there are precautions that crews take to maintain evidence that could help investigators.”We have had what’s called awareness training so that at fire scenes, we don’t end up destroying evidence doing our job, so we’re aware of some of the things they look for,” the fire captain said.Fire investigations can also take longer if it is criminal in nature, he said. Those cases can take months and could include investigators from law enforcement agencies.Ziegler said he was not aware of whether a law enforcement agency was involved at this point, but he did see investigators with the Ventura County Fire Department working at the Thomas Fire’s command post.
timberland earthkeeper chelsea boots How did the Thomas Fire start

timberland chukka HOW DID SON GO WRONG

safety boots timberland HOW DID SON GO WRONG

World Politics Entertainment Gossip Movies TV Music Theater Arts Crosswords Entertainment Pics Horoscopes Daily Weekly Monthly Lifestyle Health Food Viva Games Opinion Autos Buyer’s Guide Ratings Reviews News Views Photos Galleries Covers Classifieds Trending: Stormy Daniels Ruthie Ann Miles RUSSIA GUN CONTROL JARED KUSHNER

Wednesday, April 26, 2000, 12:00 AM

Jasmine is the 16 year old girlfriend of his older son, 19 year old Johnny. The two teenagers beamed with young love from an oversize photo button affixed above Johnny’s bed over by the window. They were at the present moment being held at the 40th Precinct stationhouse for questioning in connection with the murder of a livery cab driver.

The two others being held were young men that the father was forever telling Johnny to stay away from.

“When he’s in the house,
timberland chukka HOW DID SON GO WRONG
he’s fine,” the father said. “It’s once he leaves it’s the problem. The work was intricate and tidy.

“He’s an artist,” the father said. “I’ve seen him sit and do it.

“One minute, he’s doing something good,” the father said.

“I don’t know what made them take a cab,
timberland chukka HOW DID SON GO WRONG
” he said. “They don’t go anywhere. . . . They’re either in the back or in front of the lobby.

“Where were you guys going?

” he asked. “That’s what I want to know. What were you thinking?Atop the dresser was a small television. Johnny watched the TV news and almost certainly saw all the outcry in recent days about murdered livery drivers. This day’s story was about the four teenagers being held after the latest killing.

timberland mountain athletics How did Kate Middleton look so good just hours after giving birth

timberland 3 eye How did Kate Middleton look so good just hours after giving birth

What will the child be called? How many days late was she?However, one question above all seemed to take hold of people how did Kate look so good?(Image: PA)Just a few hours after giving birth to a bouncing baby girl, the Duchess of Cambridge was seen standing on the steps of the Lindo Wing at St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, west London, looking immaculate.Wearing a beautiful Jenny Packham dress and heels, and with her hair styled to perfection, Kate looked relaxed and beautiful.Following her appearance,Twitter and other social networks were swamped with comments from fans complimenting her on her appearance with many stunned she looked so good having given birth the same day.One user, Millielouuise, posted: “How and why did Kate Middleton look so good after she had just given birth ? Some1 explain.”Another, Freddie Pearson, wrote: “How does Kate look that good when she just had a baby”.Part of the reason can be explained by the stunning yellow and cream floral dress she was wearingThe bespoke silk shift dress had a delicate buttercup print. Non bespoke dresses by the designer brand cost between and Her shoes were Jimmy Choo Gilbert nude heels, while it is thought the Duchess also wore seven denier nude non slip tights, from John Lewis’s Barely There range.For make up, it has been reported that Kate used Bobbi Brown’s eye cream, a concealer and eyebrow pwoder.She is also said to have used a lip liner pencil and blush pink lipstick from Peter Jones department store in Chelsea.Her nails were painted with a natural, clear colour probably using a mixture of Essie’s Allure polish and Bourjois’ So Laque ultra shine nail enamel.Kate’s hairdresser was also seen going into the Lindo Wing in the hours before she appeared with William on the steps of the hospital.Media: American PR guru Jason Knauf has been involved in keeping media informedThe doctors who delivered the princess, Guy Thorpe Beeston and Alan Farthing, made sure Kate was relaxed and properly cared for throughout the birth.And of course the amazing midwives Arona Ahmed and Jacqui Dunkley Ben who were pictured on the steps of the hospital in the moments after the child was born.The pair of midwives helped at the princess’s birth while the team of male surgeons looked on.It is believed that Kate wanted the birth to be monitored by midwives so while the male doctors waited in a nearby room, it was the red uniformed nurses who were at her side.
timberland mountain athletics How did Kate Middleton look so good just hours after giving birth

timberland tackhead How Diana’s shoes traced the ups and downs of her marriage

timberland bags How Diana’s shoes traced the ups and downs of her marriage

Star in stripes: Diana’s ‘regular shoe’, with its 2in heel as seen here during a visit to Lambeth, South London during 1991

Court shoes, cone heels, evening pumps, slip ons, loafers: the sheer number of shoes Diana wore as Princess of Wales could almost have rivalled Imelda Marcos.

When we look at it today, we can see exactly how Diana’s shoe choices traced all the ups and downs of the story of her life especially when it came to her romance with Charles.

Step by step, from the moment she stood next to her fiance in the garden of Buckingham Palace, head held blushingly on one side in a self conscious effort to look shorter, right through to being an elegant woman who walked tall ‘6ft 3in in high heels’, as designer Bruce Oldfield put it it’s all there.

Her changing styles also mirror the rise of the shoe designer in fashion. Indeed, we’ve now reached a point at which designers such as Alessandro Michele, creative director at Gucci, are avidly referencing everything the young Diana wore in the early Eighties. Even her gawky early ‘ royal appearance’ footwear has become retrospectively fashionable.

In her ‘Shy Di’ years, Diana ordered pair after pair of low heeled court shoes in a rainbow of colours to match every conceivable outfit. She was careful never to overstep the heel height mark. Jimmy Choo remembers that when he first knew Diana, she ordered heels at ‘two inches only, no higher than that’.

They were pointed, with a V cut, and became what she called ‘my regular shoe’. Her shoe size, incidentally, is thought to have been six and a half.

Only gradually did the hemlines go up, the skirts narrow and the heels start to rise. In the last two years of her life, her marriage behind her, she entered her super groomed phase of elegant, strappy slingbacks. There were no tights, just tanned legs, and she was long past caring about giving the impression of being shorter.

She laughed when Jimmy Choo warned that a pair of four inch evening heels might be difficult to move in.

‘I won’t be going out walking here and there,’ she said. ‘I want to be taller than the men.’

Breaking the bare leg taboo

For generations, it had been unthinkable for a lady to gowithout tights in public,
timberland tackhead How Diana's shoes traced the ups and downs of her marriage
let alonea member of the Royal Family.

Diana was the first royal tobreak ranks on the stuffy rule,ditching hosiery in summer to allow her tanned, race horse legs to be seen au naturel a trend which revolutionised the way women dress to this day.

Her off duty habit wasn’t much remarked on for one thing, she was wearing calf length skirts at that point but by 1991, as her hemlines rose, it became obvious Diana was daring to bare her legs on official occasions as well.

By the late Nineties, save for the times she wore 10 denier black tights, her bare legs in dresses well above the knee were just part of the progressive styleshe’d made her own.

How Diana set the nude shoe rules

If there’s one thing every woman knows about dressing for weddings, christenings and family parties, it’s the ‘Nude Shoe’ rule.

Pale imitation: Diana pioneered the nude heel look that Kate so loves. The Queen and Duchess of Cornwall have also followed

In fact, Diana pioneered the look 14 years earlier. In 1997, she’d already hit on the trick of enhancing her one coloured Versace, Jacques Azagury and Catherine Walker shift dresses with pale beige shoes, thereby visually lengthening her legs.

Her shoes were by designers such as Jimmy Choo, Gina and Versace. Where Diana led, the Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Cambridge and even the Queen,on occasion, have followed.

Her life long love of Jimmy Choo

Today, the name Jimmy Choo is an internationally accepted synonym for ‘strappy stilettos’, a British mega brand valued at around 702 million.

Yet the company’s most famous customer, the woman still most associated with the label, is Diana, Princess of Wales.

The relationship Diana forged with Choo himself over seven years, and the countless spindly heeled designs she ordered for her new life away from Prince Charles, effectively built the brand.

Back in 1990, Jimmy Choo, who was born in Malaysia and came to study shoe making at London’s Cordwainers College, was just one man in a small workroom in Hackney, with the capacity to make just 20 pairs of shoes a week.
timberland tackhead How Diana's shoes traced the ups and downs of her marriage

brown leather timberland boots How Crown Lynn’s founder daughter became a breast

womens timberland boots on sale How Crown Lynn’s founder daughter became a breast

Your news how you want it.

On the go and no time to finish that story right now? Your News is the place for you to save content to read later from any device. Register with us and content you save will appear here so you can access them to read later.

New ZealandRural Driven Motoring Photos Puzzles QuizzesCrime Politics Health Education Environment NZ Herald Focus Premium Indepth Infographics Weather NZH Local Focus The Northern Advocate The Northland Age The Aucklander Hamilton News Bay of Plenty Times Hawke’s Bay Today Rotorua Daily Post Wanganui Chronicle Stratford Press Manawatu Guardian Kapiti News RugbyFootball Netball Basketball Golf Motorsport

Sailing Hockey Tennis Bowls UFC Boxing Athletics Triathlon Racing American s Small Opinion Personal Finance Currency Table Economy Deloitte Top 200 Herald Homes True Commercial Spy TV Movies Books Music Culture Sideswipe Fashion Beauty Food Drink

Relationships Wellbeing Pets Animals Bite Viva Canvas Horoscopes Africa Americas Asia Australia Europe Middle East NZ Pacific Sudoku Codecracker Crosswords Wordsearch Daily quizzes

Super Rugby All Blacks Lions Tour Rugby Champs NPC Six Nations Black Caps Domestic Cricket F1 V8 Rally Indycar Bikes Speedway GT NASCAR Drifting Driven Recipes Restaurant Reviews

After that, Jackie, 53, bought a cheaper (but much nicer) house in South Auckland and quit her job as a kindergarten teacher so she could wholly dedicate herself to unpaid work for her charity, The Aunties.

As she explains it, The Aunties get stuff from people who don’t need it and give it to people who do mainly women and children who’ve experienced domestic violence and are staying,
brown leather timberland boots How Crown Lynn's founder daughter became a breast
or have stayed, at one of two safe houses in South Auckland. Jackie is head auntie, reports The Wireless.

On a drizzly Tuesday morning, she parks outside my house. The rear windscreen wiper is hanging limp from the back of her car. It makes the little silver hatchback with the personalised plate HAK1S (a nickname given to her by a friend, Haki is her name in te reo Mori,) look like a sulking dog.

The little car has driven about 15,
brown leather timberland boots How Crown Lynn's founder daughter became a breast
000 kilometres this year picking things up and dropping them off all around Auckland. Jackie began her deliveries in 2013. She started getting paid for mileage in April. She hopes she will be paid a salary for her work some time next year.

timberland outlet How Companies Learn Your Secrets

timberland lace up boots How Companies Learn Your Secrets

Andrew Pole had just started working as a statistician for Target in 2002, when two colleagues from the marketing department stopped by his desk to ask an odd question: “If we wanted to figure out if a customer is pregnant, even if she didn’t want us to know, can you do that? ”

Pole has a master’s degree in statistics and another in economics, and has been obsessed with the intersection of data and human behavior most of his life. His parents were teachers in North Dakota, and while other kids were going to 4 H, Pole was doing algebra and writing computer programs. “The stereotype of a math nerd is true,” he told me when I spoke with him last year. “I kind of like going out and evangelizing analytics.”

As the marketers explained to Pole and as Pole later explained to me, back when we were still speaking and before Target told him to stop new parents are a retailer’s holy grail. Most shoppers don’t buy everything they need at one store. Instead, they buy groceries at the grocery store and toys at the toy store, and they visit Target only when they need certain items they associate with Target cleaning supplies, say, or new socks or a six month supply of toilet paper. But Target sells everything from milk to stuffed animals to lawn furniture to electronics, so one of the company’s primary goals is convincing customers that the only store they need is Target. But it’s a tough message to get across, even with the most ingenious ad campaigns, because once consumers’ shopping habits are ingrained, it’s incredibly difficult to change them.

There are, however, some brief periods in a person’s life when old routines fall apart and buying habits are suddenly in flux. One of those moments the moment, really is right around the birth of a child, when parents are exhausted and overwhelmed and their shopping patterns and brand loyalties are up for grabs. But as Target’s marketers explained to Pole, timing is everything. Because birth records are usually public, the moment a couple have a new baby, they are almost instantaneously barraged with offers and incentives and advertisements from all sorts of companies. Which means that the key is to reach them earlier, before any other retailers know a baby is on the way. Specifically, the marketers said they wanted to send specially designed ads to women in their second trimester, which is when most expectant mothers begin buying all sorts of new things, like prenatal vitamins and maternity clothing. “Can you give us a list?” the marketers asked.

The desire to collect information on customers is not new for Target or any other large retailer, of course. For decades, Target has collected vast amounts of data on every person who regularly walks into one of its stores. Whenever possible, Target assigns each shopper a unique code known internally as the Guest ID number that keeps tabs on everything they buy. “If you use a credit card or a coupon, or fill out a survey, or mail in a refund, or call the customer help line, or open an e mail we’ve sent you or visit our Web site, we’ll record it and link it to your Guest ID,” Pole said. “We want to know everything we can.”

Also linked to your Guest ID is demographic information like your age, whether you are married and have kids, which part of town you live in, how long it takes you to drive to the store, your estimated salary, whether you’ve moved recently, what credit cards you carry in your wallet and what Web sites you visit. Target can buy data about your ethnicity, job history, the magazines you read, if you’ve ever declared bankruptcy or got divorced, the year you bought (or lost) your house, where you went to college, what kinds of topics you talk about online, whether you prefer certain brands of coffee, paper towels, cereal or applesauce, your political leanings, reading habits, charitable giving and the number of cars you own. (In a statement, Target declined to identify what demographic information it collects or purchases.) All that information is meaningless, however, without someone to analyze and make sense of it. That’s where Andrew Pole and the dozens of other members of Target’s Guest Marketing Analytics department come in. Postal Service, has a “predictive analytics” department devoted to understanding not just consumers’ shopping habits but also their personal habits, so as to more efficiently market to them. “But Target has always been one of the smartest at this,” says Eric Siegel, a consultant and the chairman of a conference called Predictive Analytics World. “We’re living through a golden age of behavioral research. It’s amazing how much we can figure out about how people think now.”

The reason Target can snoop on our shopping habits is that, over the past two decades, the science of habit formation has become a major field of research in neurology and psychology departments at hundreds of major medical centers and universities, as well as inside extremely well financed corporate labs. “Mathematicians are suddenly sexy.” As the ability to analyze data has grown more and more fine grained, the push to understand how daily habits influence our decisions has become one of the most exciting topics in clinical research, even though most of us are hardly aware those patterns exist. One study from Duke University estimated that habits, rather than conscious decision making, shape 45 percent of the choices we make every day, and recent discoveries have begun to change everything from the way we think about dieting to how doctors conceive treatments for anxiety, depression and addictions.

This research is also transforming our understanding of how habits function across organizations and societies. to the Super Bowl by focusing on how his players habitually reacted to on field cues. Before he became Treasury secretary, Paul O’Neill overhauled a stumbling conglomerate, Alcoa, and turned it into a top performer in the Dow Jones by relentlessly attacking one habit a specific approach to worker safety which in turn caused a companywide transformation. The Obama campaign has hired a habit specialist as its “chief scientist” to figure out how to trigger new voting patterns among different constituencies.

Researchers have figured out how to stop people from habitually overeating and biting their nails. They can explain why some of us automatically go for a jog every morning and are more productive at work, while others oversleep and procrastinate. There is a calculus, it turns out, for mastering our subconscious urges. For companies like Target, the exhaustive rendering of our conscious and unconscious patterns into data sets and algorithms has revolutionized what they know about us and, therefore, how precisely they can sell.

Inside the brain and cognitive sciences department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are what, to the casual observer, look like dollhouse versions of surgical theaters. There are rooms with tiny scalpels, small drills and miniature saws. Even the operating tables are petite, as if prepared for 7 year old surgeons. neuroscientist named Ann Graybiel told me that she and her colleagues began exploring habits more than a decade ago by putting their wired rats into a T shaped maze with chocolate at one end. The maze was structured so that each animal was positioned behind a barrier that opened after a loud click. The first time a rat was placed in the maze, it would usually wander slowly up and down the center aisle after the barrier slid away, sniffing in corners and scratching at walls. It appeared to smell the chocolate but couldn’t figure out how to find it. There was no discernible pattern in the rat’s meanderings and no indication it was working hard to find the treat.

The probes in the rats’ heads, however, told a different story. While each animal wandered through the maze, its brain was working furiously. Every time a rat sniffed the air or scratched a wall, the neurosensors inside the animal’s head exploded with activity. As the scientists repeated the experiment, again and again, the rats eventually stopped sniffing corners and making wrong turns and began to zip through the maze with more and more speed. And within their brains, something unexpected occurred: as each rat learned how to complete the maze more quickly, its mental activity decreased. As the path became more and more automatic as it became a habit the rats started thinking less and less.

This process, in which the brain converts a sequence of actions into an automatic routine, is called “chunking.” There are dozens, if not hundreds, of behavioral chunks we rely on every day. Some are simple: you automatically put toothpaste on your toothbrush before sticking it in your mouth. Some, like making the kids’ lunch,
timberland outlet How Companies Learn Your Secrets
are a little more complex. Still others are so complicated that it’s remarkable to realize that a habit could have emerged at all.

Take backing your car out of the driveway. When you first learned to drive, that act required a major dose of concentration, and for good reason: it involves peering into the rearview and side mirrors and checking for obstacles, putting your foot on the brake, moving the gearshift into reverse, removing your foot from the brake, estimating the distance between the garage and the street while keeping the wheels aligned, calculating how images in the mirrors translate into actual distances, all while applying differing amounts of pressure to the gas pedal and brake.

Now, you perform that series of actions every time you pull into the street without thinking very much. Your brain has chunked large parts of it. Left to its own devices, the brain will try to make almost any repeated behavior into a habit, because habits allow our minds to conserve effort. But conserving mental energy is tricky, because if our brains power down at the wrong moment, we might fail to notice something important, like a child riding her bike down the sidewalk or a speeding car coming down the street. So we’ve devised a clever system to determine when to let a habit take over. It’s something that happens whenever a chunk of behavior starts or ends and it helps to explain why habits are so difficult to change once they’re formed, despite our best intentions.

To understand this a little more clearly, consider again the chocolate seeking rats. What Graybiel and her colleagues found was that, as the ability to navigate the maze became habitual, there were two spikes in the rats’ brain activity once at the beginning of the maze, when the rat heard the click right before the barrier slid away, and once at the end, when the rat found the chocolate. Those spikes show when the rats’ brains were fully engaged, and the dip in neural activity between the spikes showed when the habit took over. From behind the partition, the rat wasn’t sure what waited on the other side, until it heard the click, which it had come to associate with the maze. Once it heard that sound, it knew to use the “maze habit,” and its brain activity decreased. Then at the end of the routine, when the reward appeared, the brain shook itself awake again and the chocolate signaled to the rat that this particular habit was worth remembering, and the neurological pathway was carved that much deeper.

The process within our brains that creates habits is a three step loop. First, there is a cue, a trigger that tells your brain to go into automatic mode and which habit to use. Then there is the routine, which can be physical or mental or emotional. Finally, there is a reward, which helps your brain figure out if this particular loop is worth remembering for the future. Over time, this loop cue, routine, reward; cue, routine, reward becomes more and more automatic. The cue and reward become neurologically intertwined until a sense of craving emerges. What’s unique about cues and rewards, however, is how subtle they can be. Neurological studies like the ones in Graybiel’s lab have revealed that some cues span just milliseconds. And rewards can range from the obvious (like the sugar rush that a morning doughnut habit provides) to the infinitesimal (like the barely noticeable but measurable sense of relief the brain experiences after successfully navigating the driveway). Most cues and rewards, in fact, happen so quickly and are so slight that we are hardly aware of them at all. But our neural systems notice and use them to build automatic behaviors.

Habits aren’t destiny they can be ignored, changed or replaced. But it’s also true that once the loop is established and a habit emerges, your brain stops fully participating in decision making. So unless you deliberately fight a habit unless you find new cues and rewards the old pattern will unfold automatically.

“We’ve done experiments where we trained rats to run down a maze until it was a habit, and then we extinguished the habit by changing the placement of the reward,” Graybiel told me. “Then one day, we’ll put the reward in the old place and put in the rat and, by golly, the old habit will re emerge right away. Habits never really disappear.”

Luckily, simply understanding how habits work makes them easier to control. Take, for instance, a series of studies conducted a few years ago at Columbia University and the University of Alberta. Researchers wanted to understand how exercise habits emerge. In one project, 256 members of a health insurance plan were invited to classes stressing the importance of exercise. Half the participants received an extra lesson on the theories of habit formation (the structure of the habit loop) and were asked to identify cues and rewards that might help them develop exercise routines.

The results were dramatic. Over the next four months, those participants who deliberately identified cues and rewards spent twice as much time exercising as their peers. Other studies have yielded similar results. According to another recent paper, if you want to start running in the morning, it’s essential that you choose a simple cue (like always putting on your sneakers before breakfast or leaving your running clothes next to your bed) and a clear reward (like a midday treat or even the sense of accomplishment that comes from ritually recording your miles in a log book). After a while, your brain will start anticipating that reward craving the treat or the feeling of accomplishment and there will be a measurable neurological impulse to lace up your jogging shoes each morning.

Our relationship to e mail operates on the same principle. When a computer chimes or a smartphone vibrates with a new message, the brain starts anticipating the neurological “pleasure” (even if we don’t recognize it as such) that clicking on the e mail and reading it provides. That expectation, if unsatisfied, can build until you find yourself moved to distraction by the thought of an e mail sitting there unread even if you know, rationally, it’s most likely not important. On the other hand, once you remove the cue by disabling the buzzing of your phone or the chiming of your computer, the craving is never triggered, and you’ll find, over time, that you’re able to work productively for long stretches without checking your in box.

Some of the most ambitious habit experiments have been conducted by corporate America. To understand why executives are so entranced by this science, consider how one of the world’s largest companies, Procter Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers. P. G. is the corporate behemoth behind a whole range of products, from Downy fabric softener to Bounty paper towels to Duracell batteries and dozens of other household brands. In the mid 1990s, P. G.’s executives began a secret project to create a new product that could eradicate bad smells. P. G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap to manufacture liquid that could be sprayed on a smoky blouse, stinky couch, old jacket or stained car interior and make it odorless. In order to market the product Febreze the company formed a team that included a former Wall Street mathematician named Drake Stimson and habit specialists, whose job was to make sure the television commercials, which they tested in Phoenix, Salt Lake City and Boise, Idaho, accentuated the product’s cues and rewards just right.

The first ad showed a woman complaining about the smoking section of a restaurant. Whenever she eats there, she says, her jacket smells like smoke. A friend tells her that if she uses Febreze, it will eliminate the odor. The cue in the ad is clear: the harsh smell of cigarette smoke. The reward: odor eliminated from clothes. The second ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophie will always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.” The ads were put in heavy rotation. Then the marketers sat back, anticipating how they would spend their bonuses. A week passed. Then two. A month. Two months. Sales started small and got smaller. Febreze was a dud.

The panicked marketing team canvassed consumers and conducted in depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimson recalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. The house was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained. But when P. G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most of their time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.

According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman,
timberland outlet How Companies Learn Your Secrets
“What do you do about the cat smell?”

timberland boots in usa How close are the Packers

timberland work boots steel toe How close are the Packers

Grab a strong cup of coffee and get caught up on everything you need to know about the Packers. But quarterback Nick Foles led the Eagles on a 14 play, 75 yard touchdown drive to retake the lead with 2:21 remaining on an 11 yard pass from Foles to tight end Zach Ertz. The drive included a fourth down conversion near midfield, also on a pass from Foles to Ertz.

Key play: The Eagles defense, who struggled to pressure on Tom Brady throughout the game,
timberland boots in usa How close are the Packers
finally got to Brady as the Patriots quarterback was trying to lead yet another game winning drive. But defensive end Brandon Graham pushed his way into the pocket and knocked the ball from Brady hand, and teammate Derek Barnett recovered the fumble with 2:16 remaining. It was the first turnover of the game for the Patriots. The Eagles again held firm against Brady and the Patriots on the final drive.

The big news in Green Bay over the weekend, of course, was Jerry Kramer finally getting into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
timberland boots in usa How close are the Packers

timberland uk boots How clean is the air in Kamloops

cheap timberland How clean is the air in Kamloops

YOU ASKED:There seems to be a lot of debate on the online forums regarding Kamloops’ air quality. I’ve heard it is on par with Kelowna’s but others seem to think it’s terrible. Could you look into this and shed some light on this discussion? Alex OUR ANSWER:Your timing was fortuitous, Alex. We started poking around the Ministry of Environment via telephone on Monday and were told that, by coincidence, the City of Kamloops was about to release a background report on the status of air quality in the community. That report came out Wednesday on the City’s websiteand it lays out an interesting portrait of the air we breathe. Among the findings: Air quality in Kamloops is generally good. There are periods of poorer air during wildfires and periods of poor dispersion within the valley resulting in increased levels of particulate matter (PM2.5). The key pollutants in Kamloops that are of concern for health are respirable particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone. Both PM2.5 and ozone levels are below both national and provincial standards. The only time Kamloops exceeded the acceptable levels was in 2004, the year of the great forest fires. Interestingly, air quality in Kamloops is measured at two continuous air stations every hour. One is in Brocklehurst and another is downtown. In the City’s Air Quality Backgrounder document, released on Wednesday, the air quality in Kamloops is compared to Kelowna. “Seems like they’re pretty on par, for the most part, except when there’s forest fires that affect one or the other, of course,” said Environment Minister Terry Lake. The most significant difference between Kamloops and Kelowna is that odours due to total reduced sulphur gasses (TRS) are very rare in Kelowna while they are common in Kamloops. The Domtar pulp mill and City’s sewer treatment plant on Mission Flats Road are two of the main sources of these sulphur odours. So,
timberland uk boots How clean is the air in Kamloops
too, are the various pumping stations throughout town and the gas and petroleum installations near the weigh scales at Mount Dufferin. “The upgrade of the sewage treatment plant will help a little bit with that and, of course, Domtar is much, much better than it used to be in the old days. If you know anyone from Kamloops way back when, they’ll tell you the occasional whiff we get now was a constant in the old days.” These odours have been measured in Kamloops since the 1970s and they don’t pose a risk to health; they’re just unpleasant. Level A objective. The highest odour levels are measured at the Brocklehurst station and since 2003 have ranged from eight to 72 hours per year with hourly concentrations greater than 5ppb. In the 1980’s there were often more than 500 hours above 5ppb per year. For comparison, in Prince George during 2010 the downtown monitor recorded over 1000 hours above 5ppb compared to 74 hours in Kamloops at the Brocklehurst monitor. Since stinky sulphur odour is rare in Kelowna, we can’t compare that city with ours. Of course, air quality continues to be a subjective matter when it comes to public debate. Two people living on the same street will have two opinions on the quality of air. So you will likely continue to see a debate between the virtues of our air, compared with Kelowna’s. If you’re really concerned about it, we suggest you get involved in the City of Kamloops’ Airshed Management Plan,
timberland uk boots How clean is the air in Kamloops
which is being developed right now. Follow our Readers’ Reporter on Twitter at CathLitt_KDN.