timberland for men Automakers’ switch to new refrigerant will accelerate with EPA credits

boys timberland clothes Automakers’ switch to new refrigerant will accelerate with EPA credits

A customer checking out the new Jeep Cherokee might be more intrigued by the novel nine speed transmission than by what’s inside the air conditioner compressor.

But the refrigerant flowing through the veins of the Cherokee’s air conditioner, a formulation called 1234yf, might be just as crucial as the gearbox to Chrysler’s strategy for satisfying strict new environmental rules in the United States and Europe.

Auto companies are moving quickly to adopt 1234yf, despite its higher costs and a safety scare that raised concerns about possible toxic leaks. Regulators like it because it leads to lower greenhouse gas emissions than the chemical used in most vehicles today, which is called R134A.

Another big incentive: Vehicles that use the new refrigerant, like the Cherokee, qualify for tradable credits from the EPA, helping them comply with new fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards that will double to the equivalent of 54.5 mpg by 2025.

“We’re a strong supporter of 1234yf as the new environmentally friendly refrigerant for the industry,” said Michael Rinaldi, a senior manager for HVAC systems at Chrysler.

Until recently, that switch seemed threatened by Daimler’s objections.

The automaker stunned the industry in September 2012 with tests showing 1234yf catching fire and spewing toxic gas into the cabin of a Mercedes Benz B class hatchback. But the storm cloud now seems to have passed.

A study released in April by SAE International, with participation from the Detroit 3 and several Asian automakers, concluded that 1234yf is “safe and effective,” and went so far as to suggest that Daimler may have designed its tests to show a problem.

A second analysis, released in August by the German environmental regulator KBA, concluded the new refrigerant is somewhat riskier than R134A, but not dangerous.

Daimler’s claims “caused everyone in the industry to pause and take stock, in case something had been missed,” said Ken Gayer, vice president and general manager of Honeywell Fluorine Products, which holds the patents on the new refrigerant along with DuPont. showrooms. That number will increase rapidly in 2017, when a European mandate takes effect, so Honeywell is ramping up production. Honeywell said this month that together with its suppliers, it will invest $300 million to produce 1234yf at its chemical manufacturing facility in Geismar, La., starting in 2016.

A study labels 1234yf “safe and effective.” The refrigerant is used in the 2014 Jeep Cherokee.

Fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked, but the switch to 1234yf has little to do with fuel economy.

Rather, it is an effort to phase out the refrigerant R134a, which is a greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide, and can leak into the air if a vehicle is crashed or improperly repaired. R134a has a “global warming potential” of 1,430,
timberland for men Automakers' switch to new refrigerant will accelerate with EPA credits
meaning it is 1,430 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the atmosphere.

In the European Union, a refrigerant with a global warming potential of less than 150 is required in all new models certified after Jan. 1, 2013, under Europe’s “type approval” process. Starting on Jan. 1, 2017, the mandate will cover all new passenger cars.

Dupont and Honeywell say their refrigerant has a global warming potential of 1, and an industrywide switch would be equivalent to eliminating 30 million cars’ worth of greenhouse gas emissions.

But there is a downside. While the old refrigerant costs about $5 per pound in bulk, the new one costs about 10 times as much and it requires new equipment at dealerships and repair shops that service the air conditioners.

To entice automakers to switch though it’s not issuing a mandate the EPA offered credits under the fuel economy standards. That was particularly tempting to automakers such as Chrysler, whose lineup is stocked with thirsty muscle cars and SUVs.

In addition to the Cherokee, Chrysler has started using the refrigerant in the Chrysler 300, Dodge Charger and Dodge Challenger. The Dodge Dart and Ram 1500 will follow in 2014, Rinaldi said.

Daimler, along with BMW and Volkswagen AG, would prefer to use CO2 based air conditioning systems. A CO2 refrigerant would, by definition, have a global warming potential of 1, like 1234yf, but would be safer because it is a naturally occurring substance, these automakers say.

“We see it as the only solution currently available that meets the strictest standards in terms of safety and climate protection,” Daimler spokesman Matthias Brock wrote in an e mail.

But such a system likely would require higher pressure to be effective. That means the compressor would draw more power from the engine, hurting fuel economy, says Peter Coll, managing director of Neutronics, a maker of HVAC testing equipment.

Coll, who is also vice chairman of an SAE climate control committee, said he believes Daimler’s objections won’t stop the industrywide switch to 1234yf.

“It looks like that door is closing rapidly,” he said. “There could always be another surprise, but we believe it’s all coming to an end.”

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timberland for men Automakers' switch to new refrigerant will accelerate with EPA credits

timberland for men A Nature Inspired Wedding

timberlands boots sale A Nature Inspired Wedding

Weddings don’t have to be grand formal affairs with function rooms and posh wedding favors. Planning your wedding with nature in mind can result in a wedding that is fun, relaxed and full of adorable details that are unique and personable.

Here are a few tips to help you put together a beautiful wedding, inspired by nature.

The venue: It has to be outdoors. Think about parks, woodlands or gardens. You can erect a marquee if you feel the need for shelter perhaps from the sun and as somewhere to retreat in the cooler evening temperatures.

The reception: Treat you guests to gourmet picnic baskets and provide them with picnic blankets to sit on. Serve up dishes made with seasonal produce, which could also be organic and locally grown.

Decorate the venue with garlands of fresh flowers and foliage. For a fragrant air incorporate fresh herbs as well. Use candles for decorative lighting and paper lanterns hung in colorful clusters.

Details: If you do provide tables and chairs go for rustic looking wooden ones and make table centers of fresh herbs and seasonal flowers in small metal pails, enamel jugs or jars.

Choose a simple wedding cake design and decorate it with sprigs of fresh herbs and wild flowers.

Instead of a guest book ask your guest to write their messages on small pieces of paper and peg them to a tree or line to create a wishing tree.

Use natural elements for place cards such as apples, pears or citrus fruits. Simply write the guests names on small strips of paper and pin them onto the fruit. For decorative accents choose butterflies, birds and cute bugs

For colors choose green as your main color and accent it with white, natural tones of brown or cream. For a more vibrant scheme incorporate citrus yellow, with lemons as a decorative accent throughout. Or use several shades of green and choose a single flower as a signature, such as a dog daisy, for a pretty scheme with a country feel.

You can incorporate patterns as well such as gingham,
timberland for men A Nature Inspired Wedding
polka dots or checks. Using these patterns in accents such as ribbons adds a vintage touch to the whole scheme and a homely feel.

Wedding favors: Stick with the natural theme and give seeds or flower bulbs, coordinating them with the flowers you have used for your wedding. Give out recipes for favorite foods from your families, such as cakes, pies and savories.

Give little pots of fresh herbs or special herb mixes that you have put together yourself and presented in a small tin or linen bag.

If your budget will run to it then tree seedlings are a popular new trend for favors. They make a gift that will last forever (hopefully) and they are good for the environment

Flowers: Choose seasonal blooms which are locally grown. You could even grown your own flowers at home planting them early enough so they will be in full bloom by your wedding date.

Wildflowers are a great alternative to garden flowers and make stunning but understated displays. Daisies, chrysanthemums, stocks and hydrangeas are all popular choices and don’t cost the earth either.

Choose pretty hand tied bouquets for yourself and your bridesmaids, simple arrangements for your table centers and a floral ring for your flower girl give her a basket of wild flower petals to strew in front of you as you glide down the aisle

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timberland for men A Nature Inspired Wedding